classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles

Note that the French word for a teacher at the primary school level is professeur or professeure des écoles (previously called instituteur, or its feminine form institutrice). Les Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles (CPGE) sont des classes post-baccalauréat dont la vocation est de préparer les étudiants aux concours d’entrée aux grandes écoles. Precisely, school teachers are divided between : University teachers are recruited by special commissions, and are divided between: Religious instruction is not given by public schools (except for 6- to 18-year-old students in Alsace-Moselle under the Concordat of 1801). Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) économiques et commerciales (EC) restent la voie royale pour accéder aux grandes écoles de management et de commerce après prépa. Tout naturellement, ce déséquilibre se retrouve ensuite, et il … The amount of work required of the students is exceptionally high. Les classes préparatoires économiques et commerciales générales et technologiques conduisent, en deux ans, à l’intégration des grandes écoles de management après les … classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles CPGE PTSI PTLycée Vauvenargues - Aix en provence The public universities in France are named after the major cities near which they are located, followed by a numeral if there are several. Certified teachers (Professeurs certifiés), educated in both a University and an INSPE, have a "master" (Bac+5) and must pass a competitive exam called Certificat d'Aptitude au Professorat de l'Enseignement du Second degré (CAPES) in a specific domain. The tuition in public engineering schools is comparable to universities but a little higher (around €700). French universities have also adopted the ECTS credit system (for example, a licence is worth 180 credits). Napoleon began the French university and secondary educational systems. Paris, for example, has 13 universities, labelled Paris I to XIII. Si les premières écoles de commerce sont créées à la fin du XIXème siècle, le système de recrutement par concours n’est instauré qu’au siècle suivant, et seulement après 1970, les prépa HEC se multiplient dans les lycées. He also made public instruction mandatory, free of charge, and secular (laïque). Higher education in France is divided between grandes écoles and public universities. The situation has been diversified by the introduction in the 1950s of the CAPES examination for secondary teachers and in the 1990s by the institution of "Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres" (IUFM), which have been renamed Écoles Supérieures du Professorat et de l’Éducation (ESPE) in 2013 and then Instituts Nationaux Supérieurs du Professorat et de l’Éducation (INSPE) in 2019. The head of the ministry is the Minister of National Education. Another original feature of the French higher education system is that a large share of the scientific research is carried out by research establishments such as CNRS or INSERM, which are not formally part of the universities. Clark, Linda L. "Approaching the History of Modern French Education: Recent Surveys and Research Guides,". France also hosts various catholic universities recognized by the state, the largest one being Lille Catholic University,[15] as well branch colleges of foreign universities. It is difficult to change a major during undergraduate studies without losing a semester or even a whole year. They are generally focused on a single subject area (e.g., engineering or business), have a small size (typically between 100 and 300 graduates per year), and are highly selective. "Women teachers and the schooling of girls in France: Recent historiographical trends. However the traditional curriculum based on end of semester examinations still remains in place in most universities. fewer than 19 million young people in Metropolitan France, or 32% of the total population, compared with 40% in the 1970s and 35% at the time of the 1990 census. In humanities CPGEs, colles are usually taken every quarter in every subject. Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles Sur 2 ans, la CPGE, filière PTSI puis PT/PT*, offre un parcours sécurisé vers plus de 150 écoles d'ingénieurs (Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Centrales, Mines Ponts, Polytechnique, écoles du groupe INP, INSA, etc. There are two kinds of Khâgnes. ont pour fonction d'accroître le niveau des connaissances des bacheliers dans différents champs disciplinaires de manière à les rendre aptes à suivre une formation en grande école dans les filières littéraires, économiques et commerciales et scientifiques. Three year olds do not start primary school, they start preschool. Elle est facultative pour les élèves inscrits dans les lycées privés. daccess-ods.un.org. A ccess to classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles: over 5 p er cent of pupils i n the last year of lycée, often scholarship holders, apply for admission to the classes préparatoires, which prepare students to tak e the entrance exa minations f or the grandes écoles. The grandes écoles admit the graduates of the level Baccalauréat + 2 years of validated study (or sometimes directly after the Baccalauréat) whereas universities admit all graduates of the Baccalauréat. First year CPGE students are called the "Math Sup", or Hypotaupe, (Sup for "Classe de Mathématiques Supérieures", superior in French, meaning post-high school), and second years "Math Spé", or Taupe, (Spés standing for "Classe de Mathématiques Spéciales", special in French). Quiz : testez vos connaissances sur les classes prépa. Then, by the age of six, a child in France starts primary school and soon moves onto higher and higher grade levels until they graduate. The grades are named: CP (cours préparatoire), CE1 (cours élémentaire 1), CE2 (cours élémentaire 2), CM1 (cours moyen 1) and CM2 (cours moyen 2). Each CPGE receives applications from hundreds of applicants worldwide[citation needed] every year in April and May, and selects students based on its own criteria. The first two years of preschool (TPS and petite section "PS") are introductions to community living; children learn how to become students and are introduced to their first notions of arithmetic, begin to recognize letters, develop oral language, etc. Higher education in France is organized in three levels, which correspond to those of other European countries, facilitating international mobility: the Licence and Licence Professionnelle (bachelor's degrees), and the Master's and Doctoratdegrees. Pour chaque voie d'étude, un programme national d'études est fixé par arrêté, … Their weekly service is 15 or 18 hours. Cité orientée : les épisodes de la saison 1, Cité orientée : les épisodes de la saison 2, Découvrir les métiers de la mode et du luxe, Découvrir les métiers du transport aérien, Suivez-nous sur Twitter "Les infos de l'Onisep", Suivez-nous sur Twitter "Les infos sur les métiers", Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE). Adresse : 1 rue Georges Clemenceau 44042 Nantes. The main age that a child starts school in France is age 3. "Ce sera moi" : retrouvez les saisons 1,2 et 3. Les classes préparatoires économiques et commerciales sont beaucoup plus récentes. In a March 2004 ruling, the French government banned all "conspicuous religious symbols" from schools and other public institutions with the intent of preventing proselytisation and to foster a sense of tolerance among ethnic groups. ", Harrigan, Patrick. The student then has 20 minutes to present his/her work to the teacher, who finally asks some questions on the presentation and on the corresponding topic. À vous les CPGE scientifiques. A stude… The school calendar is standardised throughout the country and is the sole domain of the ministry.[4]. Despite the fact that the population is growing (up 0.4% a year), the proportion of young people under 25 is falling. ; La qualité de l'encadrement et du suivi des élèves reste sans égal. Les BBA et les écoles en 4 ans; Les écoles en 5 ans; Les concours post-bac; Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) Tout savoir sur Parcoursup; Après prépa; Après bac+2+3 . Elles portent sur les critères d’admission, les concours ou encore la possibilité du redoublement… Démêlez le vrai du faux grâce à ce quiz. In addition, most of the universities have taken a more informal name that is usually that of a famous person or a particular place. Those classes prepare for schools such as the three Écoles Normales Supérieures, the Ecole des Chartes, and sometimes Sciences Po. Their weekly service is about 28 hours a week. As in other educational systems, French primary school students usually have a single teacher (or two) who teaches the complete curriculum. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. In May, schools need time to organise exams (for example, the baccalauréat). Même si certaines écoles sont accessibles à post-bac, certains recrutent uniquement les étudiants après une classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles (CPGE). Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (C.P.G.E.) La vocation de la classe préparatoire - CPGE est de donner une solide culture scientifique qui permettra à l'étudiant de suivre dans les meilleures conditions les enseignements du cycle ingénieur. Elles sont intégrées dans des lycées. Chaque filière est subdivisée en voies. In French higher education, the following degrees are recognized by the Bologna Process (EU recognition): Licence and Licence Professionnelle (bachelor's degrees), and the comparably named Master and Doctorat degrees. Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) s’effectuent le plus souvent pendant les 2 années qui suivent l’obtention du baccalauréat. All teachers in public primary and secondary schools are state civil servants, making the ministère the largest employer in the country. [18][19][20][21] While the rankings slightly vary from year to year, the top grandes écoles have been very stable for decades: The Preparatory classes (in French "classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles" or CPGE), widely known as prépas, is a prep course with the main goal of training students for enrollment in a grande école. Découvrez les bonnes réponses, synonymes et autres mots utiles La classe préparatoire "mathématiques supérieures physique-chimie" (PCSI-PC) du lycée Edmond Perrier prépare, en deux années de formation, ses étudiants aux concours d'entrée des grandes écoles d'ingénieurs (Polytechnique, Mines-Ponts-Télécom, Centrale-Supélec, Concours Commun INP, e3A). Pourtant, les lycées comme les grandes écoles s’organisent pour faciliter leur accueil. The students are called the khâgneux. "France: permanence and change." Vous envisagez de rejoindre une école d’ingénieurs ou une école normale supérieure, une école vétérinaire ou militaire ? Les champs marqués d'un * sont obligatoires. That double standard has added complexity to a system, which also remains quite rigid. primary school teachers were educated in Écoles Normales and secondary teachers recruited through the "Agrégation" examination. Pourquoi choisir une Classe Préparatoire au Lycée Gustave Eiffel ? "teachers-researchers" (enseignants-chercheurs), with at least a doctorate: they teach classes and conduct research in their field of expertise with a full tenure. Sélectives, elles enregistrent un taux de réussite aux concours de 95 % pour leurs élèves. They are known as prépa EC (short for Economiques et Commerciales) and are divided into two parts: prépa ECS, which focuses more on mathematics, generally for those who graduated the scientific baccalaureat, and prépa ECE, which focuses more on economics, for those who were in the economics section in high school. However, there exist specialised sections and a variety of options that students can choose. The net pay is from 1,400 to 3,900 euros per month. Higher education in France is organized in three levels, which correspond to those of other European countries, facilitating international mobility: the Licence and Licence Professionnelle (bachelor's degrees), and the Master's and Doctorat degrees. Dès les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, les catégories les moins favorisées sont quasiment absentes : on y compte 6,4 % d’enfants d’ouvriers, 10,1 % d’employés, contre près de 50 % d’enfants de cadres. L'accès aux classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles: plus de 5 % des élèves inscrits en classe de terminale, souvent boursiers, ont présenté un dossier d'inscription en classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles. Secondary school teachers who have been permanently assigned away from their original school position to teach in a university. Ces prépas, réputées et s… There are also several hours of homework, which can rise as much as the official hours of class. The Licence and the Master are organized in semesters: 6 for the Licence and 4 for the Master. Primary and secondary private schools in France are divided into two categories: As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC)[7] listed France as having 105 international schools. Ce manuel de cours est destiné aux élèves de première et deuxième années de classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles scientifiques, et à leurs enseignants, voies MP, PC, PSI, PT, TPC, TSI, hors BCPST, TB et ATS. ), which lists all current programmes and teaching directives. Students usually also have few course selection options once they enroll in a particular diploma. Deux autres prépas mènent aux concours de l'école nationale des chartes ou de l'école spéciale militaire Saint-Cyr. Some of them are not in Paris itself, but in the suburbs. Nous avons ôté de ce classement les lycées qui préparent principalement aux grandes écoles militaires. The ratio of CPGE students who fail to enter any grande école is lower in scientific and business CPGEs than in humanities CPGEs. In engineering schools and the professional degrees of universities, a large share of the teaching staff is often made up of non-permanent professors; instead, part-time professors are hired to teach one specific subject. ). Onisep.fr, l'info nationale et régionale sur les métiers et les formations. A Maître de Conférence must publish a reviewed work named Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches (HDR) (professorial thesis) in order to be allowed to become the director of studies for PhD students. With those laws, known as French Lubbers, Jules Ferry laws, and several others, the Third Republic repealed most of the Falloux Laws of 1850–1851, which gave an important role to the clergy.[2]. It is possible to return to school later by continuing education or to validate professional experience (through VAE, Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience[13]). Ben-David, Joseph and Philip G. Altbach. "Recent Trends in Social Reproduction in France: Should the Political Promises of Education be Revisited? "Widening participation in France and its effects on the field of élite higher education and on educational policy. The maximum possible net salary for second-class full professors and chief senior lecturers (maître de conférence hors classe), the end of career status for most full-time teacher-researchers in French universities, is 3,760 euros a month (2011), and only a few of the group ever reach that level. CPGE teachers are usually "agrégés" or "chaire sup", assigned by the Inspection Générale according to their qualifications and competitive exam rank as well as other factors. to be operated in common by several institutions, allowing the institutions to present a larger variety of courses.[14]. Marie Duru-Bellat, "France: permanence and change." ", This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 10:19. Some even start earlier at age 2 in toute petite section "TPS". ", Van Zanten, Agnès. The grandes écoles of France are elite higher-education establishments. The majority of them are teaching in. In scientific and business CPGEs, colles consist of oral examinations twice a week, in French, foreign languages (usually English, German, or Spanish), maths, physics, philosophy, or geopolitics—depending on the type of CPGE. Certaines de ces écoles ont même leur propre prépa. La Classe Préparatoire HEC de la CCI des Iles Guadeloupe, grâce à un taux de réussite de 100% depuis déjà plusieurs années, a pour vocation de donner tous les moyens de réussir aux concours et d’intégrer les meilleures écoles. The reference for all French educators is the Bulletin officiel de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (B.O. They are widely regarded as prestigious,[16][17] and most of France's scientists and executives have graduated from a grande école. Guizot started the elementary system. In addition to class time and homework, students spend several hours each week completing oral exams called colles (sometimes written 'khôlles' to look like a Greek word, that way of writing being initially a khâgneux's joke since khâgneux study Ancient Greek). L'actualité de l'orientation en Martinique. Baker, Donald N. and Patrick J. Harrigan, eds. Net salaries of over 4,000 euros per month (2011 level) are however very unusual, and limited to the small minority of teacher-researchers who have held the grade of first class full professor for at least seven years, which is rare. One can therefore get a master's degree (in 5 years) for about €750–3,500. The Khâgne de Lettres et Sciences Sociales (Literature and Social Sciences), otherwise called Khâgne B/L, also includes mathematics and socio-economic sciences in addition to those literary subjects. Those levels of study include various "parcours" or paths based on UE (Unités d'enseignement or Modules), each worth a defined number of European credits (ECTS). Both the first and second year programmes include as much as twelve hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two hours of philosophy, two to four hours of (one or two) foreign languages teaching and four to six hours of options: chemistry, SI (Engineering Industrial Science) or Theoretical Computer Science (including some programming using the Pascal or CaML programming languages, as a practical work). The Khâgne de Lettres is the most common, and focuses on philosophy, French literature, history and languages. Il s’agit d’un raccourci pour parler des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles qui en 2 ans (3 ans si tu cubes) préparent, les étudiants aux concours d’entrée des IEP (sciences politiques), des écoles d’ingénieurs, des écoles de commerce et de management, de vétérinaires et des Écoles Normales Supérieures (ENS). C'est en 1920 qu'apparaissent les premières classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles de commerce appelées par les lycées "EC" ou "HEC", les élèves emploient alors plus vulgairement le terme de "prépa épices" pour les désigner. [10][11] Those levels of study include various "parcours" or paths based on UE (Unités d'enseignement or Modules), each worth a defined number of European credits (ECTS). À l’issue des Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles (CPGE), l’École des Ponts ParisTech recrute des élèves ingénieurs français et étrangers dans les filières MP, PC, PSI, PT et TSI après un concours annuel. Colles are regarded as very stressful, particularly due to the high standards expected by the teachers, and the subsequent harshness that may be directed at students who do not perform adequately. Most parents start sending their children to preschool (maternelle) when they turn 3. They are called PRAG (professeurs agrégés) and PRCE (professeurs certifiés). Deux autres prépas mènent aux concours des écoles normales supérieures de Paris-Saclay et de Rennes. Après bac+2+3; Tout savoir sur les admissions parallèles; Les concours post-bac+2+3; MSc et masters; Réussir le Tage 2; Après bac+4+5 . Lycée Clemenceau Lycée Clemenceau. Scientific CPGE are called TSI ("Technology and Engineering Science"), MPSI ("Mathematics, Physics and Engineering Science"), PCSI ("Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering Science") or PTSI ("Physics, Technology, and Engineering Science") in the first year, MP ("Mathematics and Physics"), PSI ("Physics and Engineering Science"), PC ("Physics and Chemistry") or PT ("Physics and Technology") in the second year and BCPST ("Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Life and Earth Sciences"). Il existe deux types de classes préparatoires publiques installées soit dans des lycées, soit dans des écoles d’art. However, it can reach €7,000 a year for private engineering schools, and some business schools, which are all or partly private, charge up to €15,000 a year. The colles are unique to French academic education in CPGEs. They are either Maître de Conférences (Senior lecturers), or Professeurs (Professors). Laïcité (secularism) is one of the main precepts of the French republic. Their rank usually determines their geographic assignment for the first years of their careers. Intense battles took place over whether the Catholic Church should play a dominant role. However, in most cases, the research units of those establishments are located inside universities (or other higher education establishments) and jointly operated by the research establishment and the university. It is amended many times every year. A student accumulates those credits, which are generally transferable between paths. The students of Hypokhâgne and Khâgne (the humanities CPGE) are simultaneously enrolled in universities, and can go back to university in case of failure or if they feel unable to pass the highly competitive entrance examinations for the Écoles Normales Supérieures. e-CPGE : Portail officiel des Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles au Maroc "Elite Education and the State in France: Durable Ties and New Challenges. That is actually the origin of the nicknames taupe and taupin (taupe being the French word for a mole). Le but d’une classe préparatoire est très souvent de préparer un concours, notamment les concours des grandes écoles de commerce et d’ingénieurs. Dispensées dans les lycées, elles préparent aux concours d’entrée aux grandes écoles, mais peuvent aussi offrir des passerelles vers l’université. La préparation ne dure alors qu'un an et les enseignements suivent directement le programme du baccalauréat. Licence and master's degrees are offered within specific domaines and carry a specific mention. A known joke among those students is that they are becoming moles for two years, sometimes three. It is not uncommon for graduate teaching programmes (master's degrees, the course part of PhD programmes etc.) Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) ont pour fonction d'accroître le niveau des connaissances des bacheliers dans différents champs disciplinaires de manière à les rendre aptes à suivre une formation en grande école dans les filières économiques et … Students have one hour to prepare a short presentation that takes the form of a French-style dissertation (a methodologically codified essay, typically structured in 3 parts: thesis, counter-thesis, and synthesis) in history, philosophy, etc. L'avis du libraire. Some do not receive sufficient funds from the government for class trips and other extra activities and so those schools may ask for a small (optional) entrance fee for new students. National rankings are published every year by various magazines. Quelles sont les différences entre les CPGE économiques et commerciales, scientifiques et littéraires ? Sometimes, it is also a way to honor a famous alumnus, for example the science university in Strasbourg is known as "Université Louis Pasteur" while its official name is "Université Strasbourg I" (however, since 2009, the three universities of Strasbourg have been merged).[12]. En France, les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) sont des filières d'enseignement supérieur sélectives hébergées généralement dans les lycées. Spécialités, which are either research-oriented or professionally oriented during the second year of the Master. Additionally, students from low-income families can apply for scholarships, paying nominal sums for tuition or textbooks, and can receive a monthly stipend of up to €450 per month. Some religious groups showed their opposition, saying the law hindered the freedom of religion as protected by the French constitution. The literary and humanities CPGEs have also their own nicknames, Hypokhâgne for the first year and Khâgne for the second year. Les chiffres sont faibles : en 2018-2019 seulement 137 élèves en situation de handicap étaient inscrits en CPGE. Depuis 2015, l’inscription en licence à l’université est obligatoire pour les élèves des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) inscrits dans les lycées publics. Their weekly service is about 9 hours a week, 25 or 33 weeks a year. Vous êtes en terminale générale ou technologique (STI2D, STL ou STAV) ? Après bac+4+5 Les Classes Préparatoires sont le mode d'accès prépondérant de l'ensemble des grandes écoles et quasi exclusif des plus cotées. At the primary and secondary levels, the curriculum is the same for all French students in any given grade, which includes public, semi-public and subsidised institutions. Certaines d’entre elles durent une année scolaire e… Since higher education is funded by the state, the fees are very low; the tuition varies from €150 to €700 depending on the university and the different levels of education. Part-time professors are generally hired from neighbouring universities, research institutes or industries. The last two years of preschool, moyenne section and grande section, are more school-like; pupils are introduced to reading, writing and more mathematics.[4]. The students of those classes are called Taupins. Tu as sûrement entendu le terme de “prépa” ou encore celui de “CPGE”. A middle-sized French city, such as Grenoble or Nancy, may have 2 or 3 universities (focused on science, sociological studies, engineering, etc.) Vous êtes en CPGE : filières MP, PC, PSI, PT et TSI. Les Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes É coles (CPGE) préparent les étudiants aux différents concours d'entrées dans les écoles d'ingénieurs et les grandes écoles. [citation needed] A licence is awarded once 180 ECTS have been obtained; a master is awarded once 120 additional credits have been obtained.[10][11][12]. Quels enseignements prendre au lycée pour intégrer la prépa qui correspond au mieux à votre profil ? [3], In Metropolitan France, the school year runs from early September to early July. Les classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CGPE) scientifiques sont des filières sélectives qui, en deux ans après le bac, visent la présentation aux concours d'accès aux écoles d'ingénieurs, mais aussi aux écoles normales supérieures (ENS), aux écoles vétérinaires ou aux écoles militaires. as well as a number of other establishments specialised in higher education. In the first 3 years of elementary school, they learn to write, develop their reading skills and get some basics in subjects such as French, mathematics, science and the arts, to name a few. The modern era of French education begins at the end of the 19th century. They include Baruch College, the University of London Institute in Paris, Parsons Paris School of Art and Design and the American University of Paris. Ces classes préparatoires constituent la voie d'accès privilégiée aux grandes écoles d'ingénieurs, de commerce (HEC, ESSEC), aux écoles normales supérieures (ENS). Les CPGE visent la réussite aux concours d'entrée des écoles de commerce et d'ingénieurs, mais aussi vétérinaires ou militaires, ENS (écoles normales supérieures), École des chartes... Réparties en 3 filières (littéraire, économique et scientifique), elles mettent l’accent sur la pluridisciplinarité. Children stay in elementary school for 5 years until they are 10–11 years-old. Only 5% of a generation is admitted to a prépa. Une classe préparatoire publique aux écoles supérieures d’art permet à tout élève titulaire du bac de préparer les examens d’entrée des écoles supérieures d’art et de design en France ANdÉA et à l’étranger ELIA.Les personnes qui auraient engagé un parcours professionnel avant le … ", van Zanten, Agnès and Claire Maxwell. The oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones, which can be accessed only by scientific Bacheliers. La prépa, comment ça marche ? In Paris and its suburbs, there are 13 universities, none of which is specialised in one area or another and many smaller institutions that are highly specialised. Pays de la Loire >Loire-Atlantique >Nantes. Admission to CPGEs is based on performance during the last two years of high school, called Première and Terminale. Classe préparatoire aux … Outside Metropolitan France, the school calendar is set by the local recteur. Health insurance for students is free until the age of 20 and so only the costs of living and books must be added. [6], After primary school, two educational stages follow:[4]. Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of universities and colleges in France, Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres, French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, Comité d'études sur les formations d'ingénieurs, Conference of the Directors of French Engineering Schools, "École primaire (maternelle et élémentaire)", "International School Consultancy Group > Home", "International School Consultancy Group > Information > ISC News", "Validation des acquis de l'expérience (VAE)", "Campus France - Lille Catholic University", L'Étudiant, Palmarès des grandes écoles de commerce, L'Étudiant, Palmarès des écoles d'ingénieurs, Le Figaro, Classement des écoles de commerce, L'Usine nouvelle, Palmarès des écoles d'ingénieurs, "Classement SIGEM des écoles de commerce | Bloom6", "Business school rankings from the Financial Times - FT.com", Violence in the lycees leaves France reeling, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680930701754104, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01425692.2014.968245, French Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Education_in_France&oldid=989502258#Preparatory_classes_(CPGEs), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles needing additional references from July 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Besançon, Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Dijon, Grenoble, Limoges, Lyon, Poitiers, Aix-Marseille, Amiens, Caen, Lille, Nancy-Metz, Nantes, Nice, Orléans-Tours, Reims, Rennes, Rouen, Strasbourg, Créteil, Montpellier, Paris, Toulouse, Versailles.

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