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In 2016, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. David Conrad ranks #25992 among the Most Man-Crushed-Upon Celebrity Men. 36The episode recalls Desdemona’s handkerchief, which is stolen by Emily and then used by Iago to convince his master of Desdemona’s treason. While Conrad aimed at providing a melodramatic counter-model to 2 Henry VI in Jack Cade, he failed to grasp Shakespeare’s ambivalent stance and to challenge his figure as a symbol of literary genius. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1934. Levine, Lawrence. National Formations, Postcolonial Appropriations. They had to create an American drama that would not be a mere imitation of European models while properly addressing the works and the figure of the Elizabethan playwright. The phrase “its point is death” may be interpreted as a metatextual comment on the tragic character of the play’s ending. Robert Conrad Wild Wild West Black Sheep Têtes Brulées Mystères de l'Ouest. The Henry VI plays are therefore “a site of struggle” (Dollimore xxii) which simultaneously justifies and subverts social and political order. London, Philadelphia: J. New York, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986. [She averts her face. They had two known children, Adelaide of Auxerre and Rudolph I of Burgundy. Joel Porte. Ed., Montrose J. Moses. Biographie Robert De Niro, Biographie Brad Pitt. Ed. Once hunting as a metaphor has been associated with ideas of murder and massacre, aristocratic hunters may cross the threshold of savagery and lose what distinguishes them from both the commons and the animal world. Marienstras, Richard. CONRAD II LE JEUNE DE BOURGOGNE ca 835-ca 876 Married to JUDITH DE FRIOUL †870/ CONRAD II LE JEUNE DE BOURGOGNE ca 835-ca 876 Married to ERMENTRUDE VON WORMSGAU ca 845-ca 905 Siblings. In IV.1, Cade and his wife are held captive by Clifford, who threatens to have the rebel executed if Mariamne refuses to yield to him. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. 13Such reflections on liberty, virtue and morality as well as on the pastoral ideal are reminiscent of Jefferson’s political and philosophical thought. Some of his lines also echo Hamlet’s doubts (Evans 1984 130): What a fool am ITo bear the burden of my wretched life,To sweat and toil under the world’s broad eye,Climb into fame, and find myself – O, what? Dunn, Esther Cloudman. Part them. A prolific playwright, he started his career in the 1850s. London, New York: Methuen, 1990. Aesop’s Fables (The translation by Robert L’Estrange is the classic). Although he altered his model and sometimes combined references to different plays, his use of the bard was more a form of imitation than of reinvention. Forests – The Shadow of Civilization. Monday to Saturday 10-6pm. 6  It is the case for instance with Melville, who not only combines Biblical, Miltonian and Shakespearean echoes in Moby-Dick, but also merges references from several Shakespearean plays, thus making his sources difficult to identify (Ludot-Vlasak 111). Three literary sources may be identified in this passage: it may be seen as a nightmarish version of Jacob’s dream and as a vertical adaptation of the wheel-of-fortune motif. --- The Anxiety of Influence [1973]. 15The last scene of the play alludes to the last act of Hamlet, when Cade is wounded by a dying Say: LACY: [To Aylmere.] This led to several riots, the most violent one being the Astor Place riot in 18491. He was a son of Conrad I of Auxerre, and Adelaide; an older brother of Hugh the Abbot; and a member of the Bavarian branch of the Welfs. CGU | Like all the other playwrights of his time, he championed the rise of a national drama: I remember once being struck with an article, in an old quarterly, on Tom Paine’s “Brutus”. John Jowett. Mad with rage, the latter stabs the two lovers, although Paolo, who is eaten by remorse, had decided to leave the city. Dans Francesca da Rimini et Anne Boleyn, l’écrivain transforme son modèle et combine des références à différentes pièces, mais il n’en reste pas moins un épigone. The World Show Jumping Championships, or the show jumping competition at the FEI World Equestrian Games, was started in 1953, with individual competition.In 1978 Team competitions began, and men and women began competing against one another. 25Smeaton’s fate is also quite revealing of the aristocracy’s scorn for the people: a self-made man born in a poor family, the character has been appointed Groom of the Chamber thanks to his own effort. While Conrad advocated a clear ideological break from European models, Boker tried to combine Americanness and a form of filiation with European aesthetic and literary traditions. (RIII, III, 4, p. 78-81). His mother is murdered by Say and his men, his son dies of starvation and his wife Mariamne, overwhelmed with grief, passes away in her husband’s arms. As they both failed to defamiliarise and to demystify him, they also failed to fully Americanize the English playwright and to make his language “stutter” (Deleuze 55). Something is rotten in the kingdom of England. 30The whole play is indeed pervaded with references to Shakespeare. Trans. et sa participation au film d’horreur Dead Above Ground. WB Summer Press Tour - 29993 WB Summer Press Tour 1997 02 - Sarah Michelle Gellar France // Photo Gallery. Ed. Robert Conrad, the production's lead actor, as James t. West, is arguably the inspiration for Star Trek's Captain James t. Kirk. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. After the creation of nature, […] I think Shakespeare to have been the greatest work that God ever brought before human senses, and the nearest resemblance to Himself, in whose image He created him. Vocabulaire politique et propagande dans une perspective transatlantique, Slavery on Screen / American Women Writers Abroad: 1849-1976, (Hi)stories of American Women: Writings and Re-writings / Call and Answer: Dialoguing the American West in France, Morphing Bodies: Strategies of Embodiment in Contemporary US Cultural Practices, Modernist Revolutions: American Poetry and the Paradigm of the New, The Poetics and Politics of Antiquity in the Long Nineteenth-Century / Exploiting Exploitation Cinema, The Voting Rights Act at 50 / Hidden in Plain Sight: Deep Time and American Literature, Aesthetics of Theory in the Modern Era and Beyond / Photographie documentaire, Revisiting the Gilded Age / Littérature et philosophie, Cartographies de l'Amérique / Histoires d'esclaves, Le roman policier, littérature transatlantique / Maisons Hantées, Sport et société / Animals and the American Imagination, Senses of the South / Référendums populaires, The Businessman as Artist / New American Voices, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, https://doi.org/10.4000/transatlantica.4889, licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International, Catalogue of 549 journals. Transatlantica is a biannual journal with its own independent editorial committee. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1992. Shakespeare Verbatim: The Reproduction of Authenticity and the 1790 Apparatus. Cambridge: CUP, 2004. Although Shakespeare depicts Cade and his followers as bloodthirsty butchers, he also suggests that the ruling classes behave like beasts and murderers. While Conrad aimed at providing a melodramatic counter-model to 2 Henry VI in Jack Cade, he failed to grasp Shakespeare’s ambivalent stance and to challenge his figure as a symbol of literary genius. Thus, Boker’s recycling Shakespearean lines and motives ultimately challenges Shakespeare’s vision of the Tudor myth, but these references paradoxically point to the dramatist’s failure to reinvent and appropriate Shakespeare’s plays, which is even more obvious in Francesca da Rimini. Parallèlement, l’acteur donne la réplique à Pamela Sue Martin dans le drame romantique Du rouge pour un truand, puis s’illustre dans des rôles forts et engagés. But their function eventually shifts to political issues, stressing Henry’s failure as a king, and animal or predator images raise social and moral issues (Calderwood, Carr, Morse). Revue d’études américaines. Amazon.com: Les Têtes brûlées - L'intégrale [Blu-ray]: Charles Napier, Robert Conrad, Simon Oakland, Dana Elcar, Dirk Blocker, W.K. Ed. (FDR, I, 3, p. 262). A bloody murderer and an illiterate man, he threatens political order and only brings chaos and suffering. Shakespeare, William. For more information about the Astor Place riot, see Ackerman (37) and Meserve (86). It was originally written for Augustus A. Addams in 1835 and then revised for Edwin Forrest (Meserve 67). Although Boker focused on Henry VIII’s reign, Anne Boleyn draws more on Richard III than on Shakespeare’s last history play. A little later, there was a similar idea in Baa Baa Black Sheep, this time dedicated to American fighter pilots facing the Japanese in the South Pacific during the Second World War (with Robert Conrad, the main character in The Wild Wild West, who also went on to guest star in Columbo, like other actors from the small screen such as Patrick McGoohan). 8 août 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "Serie tv americaine" de F Lami sur Pinterest. As in Rochford’s dream, it seems that such intertextual proliferation did not enable Boker to turn Shakespeare’s or Dante’s verse into his own. Henry was the elder son of Count Henry I of Champagne and Marie, daughter of King Louis VII of France and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. In order to justify this conflation of historical events, he argues that “they were provoked by the same wrongs, and were commenced in the same county” (448), but one soon realises that Conrad’s aim is not so much to give an accurate account of Cade’s rebellion as to provide a melodramatic counter-model to 2 Henry VI which might appeal to Forrest’s public. Oxford and New York: OUP, 2000. --- The Tragedy of King Richard III. Conrad therefore disregards Shakespeare’s ambivalent treatment of hunting images in the Henry VI plays. Early life. Robert Redford is one of the most enduring superstars in Hollywood today. Oxford and New York: OUP, 2000. Gallagher, Kent J. 12Cade also embodies a certain number of American ideals and values. Such references to Richard III are not surprising for they corroborate the idea that Henry VIII is nothing but a merciless and Machiavellian tyrant only driven by his vilest instincts. So general, indeed, is this impression, that the attempt, even in fiction, to render such a character an object of interest, is regarded as a poetical license so presumptuous as to demand apology. Redford has progressed from being a guest star in 1960 to a prominent actor and an Academy Award Winning Director. The Bad Child’s Book of Beasts; Cautionary Tales. They also give two greatly contrasted visions of Henry’s character. ©AlloCiné, Retrouvez tous les horaires et infos de votre cinéma sur le numéro AlloCiné : 0 892 892 892 (0,34€/minute), Pour écrire un commentaire, identifiez-vous, La vache, je l'ai même pas reconnu Pappy Boyington, Arrêtant l’école à 15 ans pour commencer à gagner sa vie, Robert Conrad devient boxeur professionnel dans la catégorie poids plumes, avant d’enchaîner les petits boulots : de docker à livreur de lait, en passant par chanteur crooner dans les années 1950, sortant plusieurs disques, dont, En 1969, le comédien interprète le procureur Paul Ryan dans le téléfilm policier, Le Voyage extraordinaire de Seraphima Bande-annonce VF. The Second Part of King Henry VI. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. What, in our very presence! This is what her first appearance onstage shows, when she interrupts Henry and Norfolk to discuss religious and diplomatic matters. Deleuze, Gilles. My contention is that such a strategy enabled Melville to defamiliarise his literary models and to give them a new meaning. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, 1983. He understood, to the heart of the matter, at a glance that which it might take even superior men years to learn. (JC, III, 2, p. 499). The recipient of the Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2002, he is also the founder of the Sundance Film Festival.In 2014, Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world. The American Theatre as Seen by its Critics. Michael Hattaway. Let the tilt be stopped!We are as patient as most ill-used men,But this we cannot bear. 20George Henry Boker’s use of Shakespeare was less politically radical than Conrad’s, since he advocated a form of literary continuity between Old Europe and the United States. 18In Jack Cade, all noblemen are fond of hunting and the suppression of the rebellion is depicted in such terms to suggest the cruelty of the aristocracy: SAY: If other gameWe start not, we will beat the forest through,For this same masque, Mortimer. Hunting and hawking in the Shakespearean trilogy thus define characters socially and establish distinctions that are meant to draw a line between the nobles and the commons. 14Despite his political response to Shakespeare, Conrad recycled some Shakespearean scenes in Jack Cade. After a time spent in exile, he comes back to England from Italy under the name of Aylmere. my heart is desolate! (AB I, 3, p. 128). En 1965, Robert Conrad paye sa dette envers Nick Adams, en lui donnant la réplique dans Young Dillinger. Elyot, Sir Thomas. Evans, Oliver H. “Four letters from George Henry Boker to John Seely Hart.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. desolate! Pepe, the court’s jester, warns Lanciotto that his wife will probably be unfaithful to him, but the cripple eventually marries her. Religion, Ideology and Power in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries [1984]. Several scenes (I.i, for instance) contrast the plight of the yeomen with the harshness of the nobility; at the end of Act II, Cade swears to avenge his mother, who was cruelly murdered by Say’s men; in Act IV, as Cade and Mariamne are captured, his wife informs him that their son has died of starvation, but he is denied the right to see the boy’s body one last time: AYLMERE: How fares our boy, my Mariamne? Because of his repulsive appearance, Lanciotto believes Francesca will never love him, all the more so since she is known to be the most beautiful woman in Ravenna. Set on, before!Was ever king thus openly defied? B. Lippincott & Co, 1877. The female guest actors are great! Life of Edwin Forrest, the American Tragedian. In order to preserve political stability in the kingdom, she even remains loyal to the crown when she addresses the people before she is executed: QUEEN: I am come here to die, to yield myselfTo the king’s will, with all humility.I pray God save him and extend his reign;For he has been a gracious prince to you. (Evans 1980 54-55). ]SAY: [Advancing.] 35Boker also borrowed elements from Othello to dramatise Henry’s feigned jealousy. Conrad and Boker’s literary attitudes to the Bard proved to be quite different, but they both failed to defamiliarise him and to truly question Shakespeare as a literary icon. (AB, II, 3, p. 142). Abe Vigoda, Al Pacino, Robert Duvall, Diane Keaton, Robert De Niro Plot: Both a prequel and a sequel to the widely acclaimed crime film The Godfather , it continues the story of Michael Corleone as he survives several misfortunes while expanding the family business, and puts it in contrast to the early struggles of his father, Vito Corleone, recording his introduction into a life of crime. The character of Lanciotto combines several Shakespearean figures: his appearance is reminiscent of Richard III but his bravery, his feats on the battlefield and his jealousy evoke Othello. Although the ending of Shakespeare’s play is less bloody than Conrad’s, both women adamantly refuse to yield to a merciless man who usurps his power and show the same unwavering virtue. 22It is therefore not surprising that he was a fervent admirer of Shakespeare, who, according to a critical tradition which started in the eighteenth century, was regarded as the painter of human nature par excellence (De Grazia 45). La pièce révèle l’incapacité de l’auteur à saisir toutes les ambivalences idéologiques et morales de l’œuvre de son prédécesseur, mais aussi à remettre en cause la notion de génie shakespearien. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press / Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1985. Fans of either character should instantly identify with the lead as a true 60s invention: Rogue, persuader, charmer, hero. His aunt Adela of Champagne was Louis VII's third wife. The influence of the play is particularly visible in the last scene, in which the two families weep over the loss of their children. Moses, Montrose Jonas, Brown, John Mason, eds. 2  As the title of Michael Bristol’s book –Shakespeare’s America – America’s Shakespeare– indicates, “the interpretation of Shakespeare and the interpretation of American popular culture are two mutually determining practices” (Bristol 3). The preface thus questions Shakespeare’s ideological bias in 2 Henry VI while confirming his place in the literary canon. Ludot-Vlasak, Ronan. 19While Say’s men are compared to cruel hounds, the people are systematically represented as helpless and innocent prey to the nobility. But contrary to Othello, who has been deceived by Iago and is convinced that his spouse is Cassio’s mistress, Henry’s jealousy is feigned. He therefore asks his younger brother Paolo to court the young woman on his behalf, but the young man and Francesca fall in love at first sight and the young woman understands only too late that she is to marry another man. Thou art a traitor,Off with his head! Ronan Ludot-Vlasak, « Looking into the attribute of transcendent genius: George Henry Boker and Robert Conrad’s use of Shakespeare », Transatlantica [En ligne], 1 | 2010, mis en ligne le 16 juillet 2010, consulté le 03 décembre 2020. As Anne tried to help her brother, “by the labor tired, / Or dizzy at the awful depth below”, the ladder fell apart and each rundle turned into “a ghastly head”. The young woman scorns his proposal. 2nd ed. New York: E. R. Dutton & Company, 1925. Robert Conrad, the production's lead actor, as James t. West, is arguably the inspiration for Star Trek's Captain James t. Kirk. Shakespeare in America. This moment of domestic bliss shows that contrary to Shakespeare’s play, he is not only presented as a public figure going against the established social and political order, but also as a loving father, husband and son. Once again, Henry’s attitude is reminiscent of Richard III, who has Hastings sentenced to death for treason without any evidence of his guilt. Conrad II the Younger was the Count of Auxerre from 864 until his death. In the first act, she becomes aware of the plot against her and wonders whether her fall is not imminent, although she cannot clearly identify the threat: QUEEN: What means the king by this unwonted coldness?What means my uncle by his insolence? Although he intends to “correct an historical wrong,” he then explains that he also incorporated episodes from another rebellion which occurred under the reign of Richard II. The Measure of American Romantic Drama.” ESQ. (AB, II, 1, p. 136-7). 3American dramatists had to face a double challenge. Sturgess, Kim C. Shakespeare and the American Nation. Why people had a crush on him? Carr, Virginia, M. “Animal imagery in 2 Henry VI.” English Studies – A Journal of English Language and Literature. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984. Instead of being a “paradigm” providing Boker with a “grammar governing the composition of [a] new [work]”, Shakespeare is the canonical reference legitimizing the American playwright’s enterprise and seems to be denied “a new existence in the linguistic kingdom” (Ricoeur 69). (Evans 1980 45-46). However, his attitude to the playwright’s genius is quite ambiguous: Mr. Malone has satisfactorily demonstrated that the caricature of the leader in the English insurrection of 1450, introduced in Shakspeare’s second part of Henry VI., was borrowed from an old play, which, but for his touch of fire, would long since have sunk into oblivion. The first time Cade appears in the play, he is accompanied by his wife and his son and is about to knock at his mother’s door after several years of exile. Similarly, the heads falling in the air foreshadow Rochford and Anne’s decapitation. 2nd ed. Il incarne un entraîneur paraplégique dans Coach of the Year, prête ses traits au chef opérationnel à l’origine du scandale du Watergate dans le biopic Will : the Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy, et côtoie Sean Connery dans Meurtres en direct, critiquant le rôle des médias dans leur traitement de la violence. When she married Philip II of France instead, his father, aunt and other members of his family were angered. 5Jack Cade, which was awarded the Forrest Prize in 1841, is Robert Conrad’s most famous dramatic work and remained one of Edwin Forrest’s most popular parts in an American play. Préférant se focaliser sur ses projets personnels, le comédien décline le rôle d’Hannibal Smith dans L’Agence tous risques, ainsi que celui de George Gaynes dans Police Academy. (AB, III, 4, p. 163). Furthermore, Cade, who wants to avenge his father’s untimely death, may evoke Hamlet himself, although his mother is undoubtedly more virtuous than Gertrude. No.104 (1980): 39-57. 1 Thirty-one people were killed in the riot, after the militia was called out. A Map of Misreading [1975]. La même année, le comédien en herbe est de retour sur le devant de la scène grâce aux Mystères de l’Ouest. Whitepages provides the top free people search and tenant screening tool online with contact information for over 250 million people including cell phone numbers and complete background check data compiled from public records, white pages and other directories in all 50 states. Rosemarie K. Bank has shown that a “theatre culture” spread in American society throughout the nineteenth century, as exemplified by the following “cultural performances”: the return of General La Fayette to America or the opening of the Erie Canal (Bank 3, 5). Compliance & Integrity Education at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. Is he bisexual or gay? He echoes the Prince, who blames Romeo and Juliet’s relatives for the death of the two “star-cross’d lovers”. 31The reference to Shakespeare is all the more obvious since Richard III was Shakespeare’s most often produced play in America throughout the nineteenth century (Borman 576). As he witnesses the unbearable living conditions of the English yeomen as well as the cruel actions of the aristocracy, Cade decides to lead a rebellion to free his people. London and New York: Routledge, 1992 (1958). 34In III.2, Viscount Rochford –Anne’s brother– relates one of his dreams, in which he and his sister “for years and years, / Had climbed the rundles of a slippery ladder” reaching the sky (AB, III, 2, p. 155). 8In his preface, Conrad presents his play as a historical and ideological response to Shakespeare’s vision of Cade’s rebellion in 2 Henry VI. Arabian Nights. It sets out to be a focus for debate and publication for all American studies. (JC, 439). One may also notice that contrary to Dante’s story, no reference is made to Paolo and Francesca’s eternal damnation. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Aesop. 24Shakespeare’s Henry VIII and Boker’s Anne Boleyn focus on Henry VIII’s reign, but they do not tell the same story since the latter starts a few years after the ending of the former. En 1965, Robert Conrad paye sa dette envers Nick Adams, en lui donnant la réplique dans Young Dillinger. Yet one may also consider this choice as an openly democratic stance upsetting traditional social distinctions between the ruling classes and the people. This ideological line also influenced some of Conrad’s aesthetic choices. Rochford deplores that “What was our virtue has become our guilt: / Love to the queen is treason to the king” (AB, IV, 1, p. 177). Melodrama –a genre that proved to be popular both in the United States and in Europe– is thus both a way to match the audience’s expectations and to respond to Shakespeare’s treatment of Cade’s rebellion. Fans of either character should instantly identify with the lead as a true 60s invention: Rogue, persuader, charmer, hero. Bank, Rosemarie K. Theatre Culture in America, 1825-1860. All those who were brought down by the Boleyn family (Queen Katherine, Cardinal Wolsey, Cardinal Fisher, Sir Thomas More) and “many a one whose face [he] could not catch” cursed him as they passed him. She was first married to Robert III of Worms, in 819 in Wormsgau, Germany. Malheureusement, ses multiples tentatives de réalisation et de création (L’Ecole des Héros, High Moutain Rangers, Jesse Hawkes, High Sierra Rescue…) sont rapidement annulées. Cet article s’intéresse aux modalités selon lesquelles deux dramaturges américains du XIXe siècle – Robert Conrad (1810-1848) et George Henry Boker (1823-1890) – cherchent à s’approprier l’œuvre de Shakespeare. Par ailleurs, il exploite ses multiples talents dans les comédies musicales espagnoles La Nueva Cenicienta et Ven a cantar conmigo, y tenant à chaque fois, le rôle principal. –A most conspicuous monster! Ed. Waldrada of Worms (or Waldraith; born 801, date of death unknown) was the second wife of Conrad II, Duke of Transjurane Burgundy. You two / Began this tragedy, I finished it. – I will not hold:I see you are bent upon destroying me,And, as a reckless man, I’ll know your worst.O, woe to England, when this sinful king,Grown hard in crime, shall reach the fearful heightThat evil points him! 26 nov. 2017 - Explorez le tableau « Robert Redford » de Helene Letourneau, auquel 150 utilisateurs de Pinterest sont abonnés. 20 (1974): 187-215. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1991. L. “Shakespeare’s evolving imagery: 2 Henry VI.” English Studies – A Journal of English Letters and Philology. Like Richard, Anne’s enemies are ready to spread rumours about Elizabeth being a bastard child, or even use “drunken prophecies, libels and dreams” (RIII, I, 1, 33): NORFOLK: O find me but some little charge,Less weighty than the air-drawn gossamer – Some dim tradition, gathered in a dreamSeen by the blaring vision of a drunkard – Some hearsay mumbled by a maniac’s lips, With fever scorched upon his dying bed. : Conspiracy to Kill et Confessions of the D.A Man) ainsi que d’une série télé (The D.A). This marriage brought in 830 a son, Robert IV the Strong. Jill L. Ed. 2While the better part of American dramatists of that period advocated the development of a national drama, Shakespeare remained one of the most produced playwrights throughout the nineteenth century, as the index of plays performed in major cities all across America shows (Dunn 171-172). Jeux concours | 38In Boker’s most famous Romantic tragedy, Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, wants his lame and deformed son Lanciotto to marry Guido de Polenta’s daughter, Francesca. Elle veut être un lieu de débat et de publication pour l’ensemble des études américaines, sans exclusive. Fights, murders and political plots are indeed recurrently depicted in hunting terms: while deer hunting and hawking images suggest the nobility of the characters, references to lower sorts of hunting, such as bird liming, express the social degradation of the English nobility4. This article explores the literary responses of two nineteenth-century American playwrights to Shakespeare: Robert Conrad (1810-1848) and George Henry Boker (1823-1890).

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